Legacies of Biafra Conference SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (SOAS), UNIVERSITY OF LONDON .
TOPIC: BIAFRA & NIGERIA: The Way Forward By Emeka Chigozie Emekesiri, Barrister & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria Solicitor of England and Wales (Solicitor for the Customary Government of Indigenous People of Biafra)
1. Introduction: We are talking about the Biafra-Nigeria Conundrum. The focus of this Paper is on the way forward. The Honourable Justice Chukwudifu Oputa, JSC, as he then was, made a profound statement at the Human Rights Violations Investigation Commission (HRVIC) popularly known as Oputa Panel in the year 2000 when he said, “Time does not heal injustice. Only truth can heal injustice.” It is only a hypocrite that will say that everything is well with Nigeria regarding the issue of Biafra. Let us face the reality and tell ourselves the truth. There is a conflict between Biafra and Nigeria and that conflict has not been resolved. On the proclamation of the “No Victor and No Vanquished” in 1970 by General Yakubu Gowon, it was thought that time would heal the wounds. Unfortunately, time has not solved the problem. In fact, the problem is increasing with time. Before I start this message, let me quote briefly from one of the National Dailies which published the following news on 7th April 2017:
Biafra: We will never allow Nigeria break up – Britain Daily Post Newspaper, 7 April 2017.
The British High Commissioner to Nigeria,Paul Arkwright has stated the UK IS behind One and Indivisible Nigeria Arkwright made this affirmation at a public lecture titled ; Brexit ,Lessons, Challenges and Opportunities for Nigeria at the Federal University ,Lokoja on Thursday speaking on the position of Britain on the groups pushing to break from Nigeria, the Envoy said the UK remained firm in its support for one Nigeria. He noted that the unity of Nigeria should not be negotiable, stressing that the country will be better under one umbrella.’’The strength of Nigeria is not in her money or oil but her greatest asset remains her well-endowed and resources People” Arkwright said. He said Britain would support Nigeria in the areas of education and business development.He said” We will strive to increase our market by encouraging more investment in Nigeria’’
The lecture delivered by the British High Commissioner, Mr Paul Thomas Arkwright, at the Federal University Lokoja, was centered on Brexit and what it meant to Nigeria but a question from the audience triggered off the Biafra-Nigeria conundrum. I will yet make references to some paragraphs of the lecture delivered by Mr Arkwright. This Conference is on the Legacies of Biafra.
As a lawyer, I understand legacies to mean bequests or inheritances left by the dead for the living. The topic seems to suggest that Biafra died but left something for the living. However, the news published by the Daily Post Newspaper regarding the Biafrans agitating for independence from Nigeria is clear evidence that Biafra is still alive or is about to resurrect from the dead if it actually died in 1970. From the Bible we read of the supernatural power of the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the grave and how the Roman Soldiers surrounded the grave and said they would not allow him to resurrect from the grave but were struck by mysterious paralysis at the moment of the resurrection. But there is a difference between Biafra as a Republic which “died” and the indigenous identity of the remnants of the Biafrans who survived the war. This is where the problem lies and for the reason I now plead with my audience to be patient and understand my message.
- The Conflict and How to Resolve the Conflict: What really is the conflict between Biafra and Nigeria? What are the issues? On 15th January 1970, Major-General Philip Effiong, the last President of the Republic of Biafra who took over from General Odumegwu Ojukwu, ended the war on the following terms:
I M -General Philip Effiong, Officer Administrating the Government of the Republic of Biafra, now wish to make the following declaration: that we affirm that we are loyal Nigerian citizens and accept the authority of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria. That we accept the existing administrative and political structure of the Federation of Nigeria, that any future constitutional arrangement will be worked out by representatives of the people of Nigeria. That the Republic of Biafra hereby ceases to exist. I am convinced now that a stop must be put to the bloodshed which is going on as a result of war. I am also convinced that the suffering of our people must be brought to an immediate end.”
From the above terms of surrender, it is clear that what ceased to exist was the Republic of Biafra and not the Indigenous People of the Land of Biafra. The Biafrans were re-admitted into Nigeria as Nigerian citizens but still retaining their indigenous identity as Biafrans because they were not annihilated as a people. In International Law, if Nigeria had annihilated the Biafrans just as Rome annihilated Carthage, there would not have been any remnants of the Biafrans today to seek for the resurrection of their ancient country. Today, the Biafrans are still alive as a people living in Nigeria. Being a distinct people bound together by a common culture, history and tradition, inhabiting specific geographical region, the Biafrans are a nation under the rule of law but not yet a nation-state until they gain independence from Nigeria. The Biafrans are obedient to the Nigerian law. They have filed an action against the Federal Republic of Nigeria in Suit No FHC/OW/CS/192/2013 at the Federal High Court Owerri seeking to exercise their right to self-determination. What are the issues?
In the ongoing case between Biafra and Nigeria, the Biafrans formulated 8 issues for determination and made 8 prayers in the Originating Summons as follows:
(1) Whether the Indigenous People of Biafra who are the remnants that were not consumed in the Nigerian-Biafran war of 1967 – 1970 have the right of selfdetermination pursuant to Articles 19 – 25 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act, Cap 10, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990.
(2) Whether the Claimants who identify themselves as Biafrans by indigenous identity are committing any offence by doing so contrary to any provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 or contrary to any provisions of the Criminal Code and whether it is a crime under any national or international law to mention the name of BIAFRA or for the remnants of the Indigenous People of Biafra who were not consumed by the war to maintain their indigenous identity as Biafrans with their native emblems and symbols as they do now even though they are Nigerians by citizenship and nationality laws; and if the answer is in the negative, whether the Defendants are justified to arrest, shoot and kill the children of the Claimants for identifying themselves as Biafrans by indigenous identity contrary to the rights of indigenous peoples as guaranteed by Articles 19 – 25 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act, Cap 10, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990.
(3) Whether by the interpretation of Section 2 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 it is a crime for the Claimants and or the people of other ethnic nationalities held together in Nigeria against their will to exercise their right to self- 4 determination by seeking for independence under the law as guaranteed by Articles 19 – 25 Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 and the United Nations Resolution 61/295 of 2007 known as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
(4) Whether it is lawful under the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 and under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 for the Defendants to hold the ethnic nationalities in Nigeria together by force against their will who now constitute the six geopolitical regions namely: South East, South-South, South West, North Central, North East and North West, in a forced marriage akin to slavery contrary to their human and peoples’ rights of self-determination as there is no provision in the Nigerian law or international law that makes it a crime for a people to seek for freedom by the rule of law.
(5) Whether the amalgamation of the peoples of the south and north by the British Government to form one country called Nigeria was with the consent and agreement of the indigenous peoples of the lands; and if the answer is in the negative, whether the Order-in-Council 1910 – 1913 made by the British Government to create Nigeria in 1914 was null and void ab initio for lacking legitimacy as it could not form the basis of the Nigerian Constitution thereby rendering the amalgamation invalid.
(6) Whether by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1963 which took effect on 1st October 1963 and remained in force until the midnight of 30th September 1979 the Defendants were right to seize and confiscate the assets, properties, money, and all treasures belonging to the Claimants by promulgating the Abandoned Properties Act of 28th September 1979 while the 1963 Constitution was in force, being more than nine years after the war and after the declaration of “One Nigeria” while regarding the Claimants as Nigerian citizens but depriving them of their properties, money and assets; and if the answer is in the negative, whether the Defendants are still justified to withhold the said money, properties and assets belonging to the Claimants.
(7) Whether the Defendants were justified to violate the International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of War known as the Geneva Convention 1949 (to which the Defendants acceded and ratified on 20th June 1961) by bombing the Biafran civilians, killing the Biafran civilians and using starvation to kill the children, women and the elderly of the civilian population of the indigenous people of Biafra in the war of 1967 – 1970 in order to win the war.
(8) Whether the Defendants by registering Nigeria as a member of the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) in 1986 and licensing an Islamic Sharia Bank in Nigeria under the 1999 Constitution contrary to Section 10 of the Constitution of Nigeria have violated the Constitution and turned Nigeria into an Islamic country; and if the answer is in the affirmative, whether the Claimants have the right to dissociate themselves from the Defendants and refuse to be called the citizens of an Islamic country in the 5 exercise of their right to freedom of worship, freedom of association and selfdetermination as a people.
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Prayers: AND LET THE DEFENDANTS TAKE NOTICE that the Claimants who are called Biafrans by indigenous identity and Nigerians by citizenship have commenced the legal processes leading to the exercise of their right to self-determination and shall at the hearing of this summons pray the Honourable Court for:
(a) An Order declaring that the Claimants have the right to self-determination pursuant to Articles 19 – 25, Cap 10, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990, and are therefore free to exercise their unquestionable and inalienable right to self-determination to freely determine their political status and pursue their economic and social development according to the policy they have freely chosen.
(b) An Order declaring that the ethnic nationalities that make up Nigeria are not held as slaves under Section 2(1) of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 and therefore have the right of self-determination to decide their political status by the rule of law.
(c) An Order declaring that the Defendants are liable to pay to the Claimants by way of compensation or reparation the present value of all the money, properties and assets of the Claimants seized by the Defendants pursuant to the Abandoned Properties Act of 1979 in violation of the Claimants’ right to own properties in any part of the country since the properties were not seized in wartime but nine years after the war based on the post-war discriminatory policies and laws made by the Defendants to suppress the Claimants from generation to generation.
(d) An Order directing the Defendants to comply with the provisions of Article 20 (3) of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 and consequently give all assistance to the Claimants in the exercise of their right to self-determination.
(e) An Order granting judicial protection to the Claimants, their homes, their offices and their correspondences individually and collectively as they exercise their right to selfdetermination and an Injunction restraining the Defendants, their agents and privies, from interfering, arresting, molesting, intimidating, disturbing, hindering or harassing the Claimants or doing any act or omitting to do any act aimed at frustrating the Claimants’ exercise of their right to self-determination which they have commenced by due process of the law.
(f) An Order compelling the Defendants to release from its prisons and detention centres all indigenous people of Biafra who are agitating as pro-Biafra Movements for 6 Independence of Biafra by peaceful means and to drop all charges of treason or treasonable felonies made against them and to release all their properties seized by the Defendants.
(g) An Order affirming the Memorandum of Ohanaeze Ndigbo dated 28th June 2012 submitted to the National Assembly for the restructuring of Nigeria into six autonomous self-governing regions, namely: South East, South West, South-South, North East, North West and North Central, as a manifestation of the Will of the People in the exercise of their right to self-determination and directing the Defendants to present an Executive Bill to the National Assembly for a law granting autonomy and self-governing status to the six geopolitical regions in Nigeria; OR IN THE ALTERNATIVE, in the role of the Judiciary as the last hope of the common man, an Order directing the Defendants to present an Executive Bill to the National Assembly for a law dissolving Nigeria in peace along the compatible ethnic groups instead of allowing the country to break up in bloodshed.
(h) An Order declaring that the Defendants by registering Nigeria as a member of the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) and licensing an Islamic bank under the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 have turned Nigeria into an Islamic country contrary to Section 10 of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 and therefore the Claimants being Christians have the right to dissociate themselves from the Defendants and refuse to be called the citizens of an Islamic country.
In the Abstract of this Lecture, I had stated that the agitation for independence by Biafrans stemmed from a feeling of injustice, marginalization, discrimination and denial of their rights for which reason some misguided and ill-advised youths became confrontational and abusive, disrespecting constituted authorities in their quest for independence. We condemn such acts of lawlessness and disrespect to authorities. In the civilized world, there are proper ways of resolving conflicts and disputes. There is due process of law and diplomacy for resolving any grievances. It is not by abuses, insults, inciting violence and using incendiary languages. The Nigeria-Biafra question can be resolved and must be resolved peacefully without further shedding of blood and disturbance of public peace.
In view of the positions taken by the British Government and the French Government that they would not support the break-up of Nigeria, we have proffered a solution that will satisfy the yearnings of the Biafrans as well as keep Nigeria one in line with the official position of the British Government. It is a win-win solution where all parties will be satisfied as we shall see in this lecture.
This case started in 2012 as Suit No FHC/OW/CS/102/2012 and was reconstituted in 2013 as Suit No FHC/OW/CS/192/2013. The case was commenced long before one overzealous Biafran youth among the Claimants broke away and started abusing everybody on the internet Radio Biafra, abusing the Elders of Biafraland, abusing all the Governments of the 7 western nations, abusing the Nigerian President and despising all Authorities, threatening to destroy Nigeria which he called a zoo, threatening to destroy the human rights organization that filed the case, threatening to kill all the Igbo leaders whom he accused of being saboteurs. In fact, he ran away with the people’s radio and announced on air that he had dissolved the Supreme Council of Elders of Indigenous People of Biafra and had become the leader of Indigenous People of Biafra. He went to the Companies House in London and registered the people’s name as a private limited liability company called Indigenous People of Biafra Limited! By registering the name of the people in Court as his private limited liability company, he created confusion in the minds of the whole world. He incited the youths against the Elders of Indigenous People of Biafra and desecrated the customs and traditions of the land in consequence whereof the Supreme Council of Elders ostracized him under their Customary Law by a Public Notice and Disclaimer dated 12 May 2014.
The Nigerian Government made enquiries and interviewed His Royal Majesty, His Lordship, The Honourable Justice Eze Ozobu OFR (Rtd), the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Elders regarding the activities of the overzealous Biafran youth. His Lordship denied ever knowing the overzealous youth. I will say no more about him. The agitation for independence by the Biafrans is deep-rooted. Both the Elders of Biafraland and the Youths are involved. For a Retired Chief Judge in Nigeria, an Officer of the Federal Republic and serving King in Iboland such as HRM The Honourable Justice Eze Ozobu OFR and the Chairman of the South East Elders Forum, Dr. Dozie Ikedife, OON, FRCOG, FICS, JP; and a Retired Brigadier General of the Biafran Army, Gen Joe Achuzia, to be at the forefront of the struggle for self-determination by due process of law, it must be a very serious matter beyond youthful exuberance. These elders are in their 80s and 90s and senior to the President of Nigeria in the African tradition of giving respect to elders of the land. Unfortunately, the Nigerian Government and Nigerian Press knew the truth about the Eminent Personalities behind the Biafran Struggle for Self-determination by due process of law but decided to present the face of the overzealous youth with foul mouth as the face of the Biafran struggle to discredit the Biafran Liberation Struggle so that the world would regard it as childish fantasies and infantile brouhaha. There are many factors that fueled the stringent call for independence of Biafra. Though there is a feeling of injustice, marginalization, discrimination and denial of their rights, the root cause goes beyond a feeling of injustice. The current President of Nigeria said clearly that he would not treat those who gave him 5% vote the same way he would treat those who gave him 95% vote in his election. The Biafrans did not vote for him and he has decided to punish them. His policy of discrimination is not news. However, this is not why they are agitating for independence. The case in Court was commenced in 2012 while Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, a Biafran survivor, was in power as the President of Nigeria. Therefore the issues are beyond the seat of the presidency or mere discrimination and denial of political appointments.
Before I make fair comments on the lecture delivered by Mr Paul Arkwright, let me reproduce the message of Mr Femi Fani-Kayode on “The Seven-fold Yoke and The Cabal That Own Nigeria” published at http://www.newsreportersi.com/femi-fani-kayode-seven-fold-yoke cabal nigeria-news-reporters-international Permit me to share a scholarly, revealing and I dare say disturbing intervention which was sent to me by a friend. The author wishes to remain anonymous. He wrote as follows: –
Fulani cabal is a structural reality and will only get worse, no matter where the President of Nigeria comes from. It is a seven-fold yoke which we must break for the sake of our children.
- THE POLITICAL YOKE: Globally, out of the 16 Federal Republics in the world, Nigeria is the only federation where land mass is used as a primary criteria for creating federating units. No Southern leader (civilian or military) has ever had the guts to create any federating unit; all the federating units have been created by Northern military adventurers. 20 federating units were created from only one region (North), while 17 federating units were created from 3 regions (East, West and Midwest). Competent leaders are easily filtered off by the rigged political structure. At every election, the evil and corrupt Northern cabal needs only a few Southern collaborators to impose any presidential candidate upon the two foremost political parties, only for the electorate to z ’ mediocre leaders as President, in a country awash with extremely capable presidential materials. This also explains why since 1960 no Southerner has ever led Nigeria except by accident. The FIRST coming of ALL 3 Southern leaders – Aguiyi-Ironsi in 1966, Obasanjo in 1976 and Goodluck Jonathan in 2010 – followed the death of Northern incumbents! The fourth and only other Southern leader was Ernest Shonekan and his coming followed the ” 1993 3 which he was toppled and replaced by another northern military Head of State. For 2019 the presidential contest is being set for Atiku vs Buhari- two Fulani representatives of the Cabal.
- THE ECONOMIC YOKE: Nigeria is the only oil-producing country where oil wells are allocated to individuals. The Hausa-Fulani cabal allocated over 80% of the oil blocks either to the Northerners or to their Southern fronts/allies. The names of these oil block allottees are in the public domain.
- THE RELIGIOUS YOKE: No other faith is mentioned in the Nigerian Constitution, except Islam. For instance, in the 1999 Constitution, Christ, Christians and Christianity are not mentioned even once; whereas Islamic signposts are strewn all over the Constitution – Sharia is mentioned 73 times, Grand Khadi 54 times, Islam 28 times, Muslims 10 times, etc. 9 That Constitution was written SOLELY by one Muslim Fulani Jihadist named Prof. Auwalu Yadudu (Special Adviser to Abacha on Constitutional Matters). While the 1979 Constitution z ’ ity, the 1999 Constitution of Yadudu is a de facto Islamic Constitution, and the Cabal ensured that Yadudu was there to fight that position at 2014 q O ’ cabal formally adopted Islam as the State Religion in the core Northern States. Obasanjo x ‘ zz ’ ‘ zz ’
- THE CULTURAL YOKE: The Sultanate forms a major pillar of the Hausa-Fulani cabal. As permanent PresidentGeneral of the Nigeria Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs (NSCIA), the Sultan is the permanent leader of all Muslims in Nigeria (whether they are Northerners or Southerners). As the Permanent Chairman of National Council of Traditional Rulers of Nigeria (NCTRN) the Sultan is the permanent leader of all traditional rulers in all 36 States of Nigeria & Abuja. By the way, the current Sultan was the Brigadier-General Commanding 241 Recce Battalion Kaduna. Many public policies are determined only with the tacit approval of the Sultanate of Sokoto and the Emirates. For instance, when the Gender Bill was introduced in the National ‘ ’ y by criticizing it publicly. Even Her Majesty Queen E z II ( ’ ) z because that would be an abuse of royal privilege.
- THE ADMINISTRATIVE YOKE: Nigeria is the only African country that built a new capital from scratch (using resources from the oppressed, deprived and degraded Niger Delta/South East). The Cabal claimed that the location of Lagos by the ocean was a security risk, but this was just an excuse to Northernize national public service. A careful look at the map of Africa shows that only 2 nations have central capitals. The most common location for African capitals is at the coast. London (United Kingdom) is situated at the edge of England on the River Thames. Washington DC (USA) is located along the Potomac River on the East Coast of USA. Paris (France) is located at the edge of France in the north-bending arc of the river Seine. When Lagos was capital the Governors of Lagos State were from East, West and North. Since the Capital moved to Abuja, No Nigerian leader has ever had the guts to appoint a Southerner as substantive FCT Minister. The FCT Minister must be a Northerner, preferably a Muslim (the current FCT Minister was appointed while he was Executive Secretary of the Hajj Commission).
- THE DIPLOMATIC YOKE: q ’ Sharia-driven bodies (OIC & D-8) faces the wrath of the Hausa-Fulani Cabal. So far, only Cdr E q ’ Islamic bodies and as a result Ukiwe was summarily dismissed from office.
- THE MILITARY/SECURITY YOKE: 10 Nigeria is the only Federation in the world where all MAJOR security agencies are headed by only one section of the Federation and only members of one faithArmy – Northern Muslim, National Security Advisor – Northern Muslim, Minister of Defence – Northern Muslim, Minister of Internal Affairs- Northern Muslim, Airforce – Northern Muslim, Police – Northern Muslim, Economic Financial Crimes Commission- Northern Muslim, National Civil Defence Corps – Northern Muslim, Department of State Security – Northern Muslim, Immigration– Northern Muslim, Prisons Service– Northern Muslim, Federal Road Safety Corps – Northern Muslim, Nigerian Customs Service – Northern Muslim, Chief of Defence Intelligence – Northern Muslim, Director of Military Intelligence – Northern Muslim, Fire Service – Northern Muslim, National Emergency Management Agency – Northern Muslim, Nigerian Ports Authority- Northern Muslim No southerner has been made substantive Comptroller-General of Customs in 30 years. Even with all his braggadocio, Olusegun Obasanjo dared not break the jinx in all this years as ’ Economic and Financial Crimes Commission since the day it was established in 2003. Finally the only southerner that was EVER appointed National Security Advisor was killed after he was unceremoniously removed from office by Goodluck Jonathan after the cabal blackmailed and arm-twisted him and told him that if he wanted peace he must appoint a northerner back to that post. The above multi-faceted enslavement to the Hausa-Fulani Cabal is not an accident. Read the book by Harold Wilson which clearly states how and why the British laid the foundation for the Hausa-Fulani hegemony in Nigeria. The principle guiding the Cabal was clearly set forth by the ’ : O D Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the north as willing tools and the south as a conquered territory and NEVER ALLOW THEM TO RULE OVER EVER OW EM O VE O RO OVER EIR OW F RE ” (The Parrot Newspaper, October 12, 1960) F O ” I est victims of F ” Nigeria is structurally unworkable and MUST EITHER BE RESTRUCTURED OR BROKEN. The Hausa-Fulani cabal will resist this with their blood, but there is no other way out of the W ‘ ’ – restructured zoo called Nigeria. I 11 freed a thousand slaves: I could have freed a thousand more if only they knew they were ’ The author of this brilliant intervention has given us plenty of food for thought. He argued the matter in a detailed, succinct and concise manner and he stated the case very well. Though there were one or two omissions, his research is outstanding and his analysis is factual, insightful and incisive. The truth is that he has said it all. Sadly many in Nigeria do not know that they are slaves to the cabal because they cannot feel the yoke or see their chains. Yet slaves they are and it is time that we opened their eyes, broke their yokes, cut their chains and freed each and every one of them. That is precisely why yours truly, and millions of others, insist on restructuring our country or, failing that, dividing her and going our separate ways. May God deliver us. Happy Easter. – Femi Fani-Kayode Comment on the Conflict and How to Resolve the Conflict: In the above message, the author was quoted in the last paragraph as saying, unworkable and MUST EITHER BE RESTRUCTURED OR BROKEN. The HausaFulani cabal will resist this with their blood, but there is no other way out of the W ‘ ’ un- z ”. He gave two options namely: Restructuring Nigeria or breaking up Nigeria. I will have more to say on these points after considering the interests of the World Powers who have interests in Nigeria. 3. References to Mr Paul Arkwright’s Lecture: “Brexit: Lessons, Challenges and Opportunities for Nigeria” (Speech delivered on 6 April 2017) An extract from the lecture delivered by the British High Commissioner to Nigeria at the Federal University Lokoja shows what he said as follows: The decision the British people made on 23rd June 2016 to leave the EU was a momentous one. It will lead to change, and much detail about that change is still uncertain. But there are some very important certainties, and I want to focus on those this morning. Our Prime Minister, Theresa May, has made a very clear statement: x x ” She has also been clear that making a success of Brexit is the most important task of the British Government. There will be many elements to making a success of Brexit. This afternoon I shall say something about four of them: First: Democracy, and carrying out the mandate of the British people Second: Creating a new relationship with Europe; and Third: Forging a new role for Britain in the world. Finally: What this means for Nigeria and its economy. So firstly, the referendum was all about the British people deciding their future. The q : om remain a member of the European 12 E ?” argumentation about the issues. The vote was held. Turnout was high, at over 72%. The electorate gave their verdict. A 52% majority voted to leave the European Union. And it is now the duty of Government and Parliament, to give effect to that democratic decision. ’ ’ what they want for their country and their future. I know that Nigerians also understand the importance of respecting the democratic decision-making process very well. I would liken it myself to the kind of example that President Gooduck Jonathan also gave when he handed power to President Buhari in 2015. He showed then that there could be a peaceful transition of power from one democratically elected civilian President to another in Nigeria. So following the BREXIT vote, it was a very powerful signal of democracy to the world that the then British Prime Minister did not dispute the outcome, accepted it and resigned his office to allow new leadership to take forward the choice the British people had decided upon. Many Nigerians commented to me how impressed they were by this show of confidence in both the choice the people had made and that once made the ’ … ’ relationship with Nigeria and what has or will change? In many ways very little has changed. Our bilateral trade relationship is still worth £3.8bn per annum. Shell, a British-Dutch company, has still invested billions of pounds into Nigeria and has around sixty onshore or shallow water oilfields and seven hundred wells. Shell still owns approximately one third of oil produced in Nigeria. Nigeria remains the largest oil producing country in Africa, in spite of the depressed price of oil at this time. The historical and cultural links between Nigeria and the UK, the common language of English that the vast majority of Nigerians speak, the strong educational and business ’ If anything, I still see our connection becoming stronger. The UK is naturally looking to grow its market share, to encourage more businesses to come to Nigeria and to invest and to encourage more inward investment into the UK from Nigeria”. 4. Lessons from Brexit: In his lecture on the Brexit, Mr Arkwright said, “ ’ ’ future. The questions now are these: What do the Nigerians want and what do the Biafrans want, specifically? Do they want to stay together as one country or go their separate ways as they were before 1914? The Biafrans have argued that even though the amalgamation was not with the consent of their ancestors, they would have liked to remain in Nigeria if they were accepted as equal citizens in the North and West but they are rejected and treated as strangers. They invest their billions of naira in the North and West but the Northerners and Westerners do not invest in Biafraland. The Biafrans settle in the North and West and develop the regions with high net-worth 13 investments and live among the indigenes of the land believing in the concept of One Nigeria but are rejected and treated as invaders and intruders from the East coming to dominate other peoples in their lands. In the Northern Nigeria, they are butchered and beheaded like animals with their heads paraded as trophies while in the Western Nigeria they are threatened of being drowned in the Lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean if they fail to vote in the elections for the candidates of the King of Lagos. The photographs below tell the story better: Ozioma was cut into two in 2011 by the Moslems in the North. Bridget (Pastor’s wife) was beheaded in 2016 by the Moslems in the North. Hunting down and killing the Ibos trading in the North! 14 The messages on the placards say it all: Y Y O in Igboland. No Dispute” I R O ”. Comments on the Lessons from BREXIT: It is my considered opinion that the lessons from BREXIT will help us to solve the problems in Nigeria. What is good for the goose is good for the gander. It is by the democratic process of a referendum that the people will decide what they want for their country and their future. The same Referendum conducted in Britain should be conducted in Nigeria to settle this dispute. The statement of Mr Arkwright rings a bell: He said, “ ’ ’ ey want for their country and their future. The Nigerians have not been allowed to decide in a referendum whether they want to live together or how they want to live together. If they want to live together, what are the terms of living together? The Biafrans have been told that the Yoruba own Lagos and they should go and create their own “Lagos” in Igboland. I do not think that the Yoruba people are wrong in their opinion. It is better for all Nigerians to give their opinions in a referendum so that the Government will implement the people’s decision. 5. The Problem of Incompatible Cultures and Values: The Biafrans see the whole world as a free world where every person should be free to aspire to the highest achievements in fair competition with other players in the world and use his talents for the benefit of humanity. With this mindset, the Biafrans develop anywhere they settle down to do business even at the detriment of their own homeland. By dint of hard work, they prosper and become successful in their Ibos are rejected in the West by the Yoruba and threatened to be kicked out 15 businesses but the indigenes of the land become jealous and seek for flimsy excuses to kill them or burn down their shops. It is clear that their lifestyle, culture, norms and values are not acceptable to the peoples of the North and West of Nigeria. They have been told that the Lagos which they helped to develop belongs to the Yoruba. In his days as the Minister of the Federal Capital Territory, Governor El-Rufai informed the whole world that Ibos own 73% of the properties in Abuja! Why did he disclose the identity of the owners of the property? The only reason was to stir up jealousy against the Ibos. The Abuja lands were originally allocated mainly to the peoples of the West and the North but they were not willing to invest in the new capital territory which had no access to the sea. At that time, many people did not believe in the viability of the new capital territory cited in a virgin forest. As the Federal Government threatened to revoke the Certificates of Occupancy the original allottees sold the lands to the Ibos at exorbitant prices to develop. This is how the Ibos came to own 73% of all the properties in Abuja! 6. The Interests of the World Powers in the Biafra-Nigeria Equation: Naturally, a marriage that is not working and has broken down irretrievably should be dissolved by Court Order or by self-help of desertion of one party from the other. To force the parties to continue to live together in a marriage of unwilling bedfellows is tantamount to breeding the grounds for murder or bloodshed. The people of South Sudan had a slogan as they struggled for independence in the following words: ”. I concur. Nevertheless, in the case of Biafra and Nigeria, there are many factors to be considered and many fears to be allayed. Much work is to be done in re-orientating the minds of both the Biafrans and Nigerians as well as members of the international community. The World Powers which have invested heavily in Nigeria and particularly in the oilfields in Biafraland which belong to the Nigerian Government by virtue of the Petroleum Act 1969 must be convinced that changing the status quo would not be detrimental to their interests. There is always a sense of fear of the unknown even in the minds of the mighty. The stance taken in recent times by Britain and France against the agitation for Independence of Biafra is understandable. It is a spiritual principle that where a man’s treasure is, that is where his heart shall be. Nigeria was created by the Great Britain in 1914 and is therefore the son or daughter of the Great Britain (depending on whether Nigeria is seen as a male or female). It is natural for every father to protect his child from all enemies, whether real or imaginary enemies. The Great Britain has said that it would protect Nigeria and would never allow Nigeria to be broken up. France has also said the same thing. These are two most influential World Powers and permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. They have invested heavily in Nigeria and have the right to protect Nigeria. Mr Arkwright said, “ ’ ship with Nigeria and what has or will change? In many ways very little has changed. Our bilateral trade relationship is still worth £3.8bn per annum. Shell, a British-Dutch company, has still invested billions of pounds into Nigeria and has around sixty onshore or shallow water oilfields and seven hundred wells. Shell still owns approximately one third of oil 16 produced in Nigeria. Nigeria remains the largest oil producing country in Africa, in spite of the depressed price of oil at this time. The historical and cultural links between Nigeria and the UK, the common language of English that the vast majority of ’ If anything, I still see our connection becoming stronger. The UK is naturally looking to grow its market share, to encourage more businesses to come to Nigeria and to invest and to encourage more inward investment into the UK from Nigeria” Their bilateral trade relationship with Nigeria is still worth £3.8 billion per annum. Other countries such as France, America, Germany, etc, also have trade relationships with Nigeria worth billions of pounds. They cannot allow their investments to be destroyed by a people seeking independence. This now brings us to the balancing exercise to ensure the smooth flow of businesses and investments between Nigeria and the World Powers while at the same time ensuring that the inalienable and unquestionable right to self-determination is respected pursuant to Article 20 Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990. Mr Arkwright was reported by the Newspapers as follows: “ said the UK remained firm in its support for one Nigeria. He noted that the unity of Nigeria should not be negotiable, stressing that the country will be better under one umbrella” To say that the unity of Nigeria should not be negotiable is an extreme statement, with due respect. Every type of relationship is negotiable otherwise it becomes enslavement. As a matter of fact and matter of law, even in the ordinary contract of marriage under civil laws, the partners have the right to separate from the marriage either by self-help of desertion or divorce by Court Order if the marriage becomes unworkable. Article 20 Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 (known as the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act, provides as follows: “All peoples shall have the right to existence. They shall have the unquestionable and inalienable right to self-determination. They shall freely determine their political status and shall pursue their economic and social development according to the policy they have freely chosen.” This is International Law that was re-enacted as domestic law by the Nigerian Parliament. In the ongoing case between Biafra and Nigeria, the Nigerian lawyers argued that the Nigerian Constitution which provides that Nigeria is indivisible and indissoluble should supersede the International Law that guarantees the peoples’ right to self-determination. We produced the authority of the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court in the case of IGP v ANPP (2007) 18 NWLR (Pt. 1066) 457 at 500, Para. B – C, where the Court held that the provisions of the African Charter as International Law which Nigeria has signed and adopted must prevail over the Nigerian domestic legislation because it is an irrebuttable presumption of law that the Legislature does not intend to breach international obligations. Therefore, the right to self-determination prevails over the doctrine of indivisibility and indissolubility of Nigeria. This is the law. The Nigerian Judiciary has not said anything different from what the law says. By the provisions of Article 27 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of which Nigeria is a 17 signatory, a State cannot use the provisions of its own domestic law as a defence to a claim against it for alleged breaches of international law. This rule of law was applied in the case of the Alabama Claims Arbitration, (1872), Moore, Arbitrations, I. 653, where the United States was awarded damages against Great Britain for Britain’s breach of its obligations as a neutral state during the American Civil War. Also in the Free Zones case (Case of the Free Zones of Upper Savoy and the District of Gex (France v Switzerland) (1932), PCIJ, Ser A/B, No. 46, P.167), it was decided that “France cannot rely on its own legislation to limit the scope of its international obligations”. The Rule of International Law on Self-determination shall prevail over the Nigerian law. The Independence of Biafra shall come and will neither be the first nor the last in the emergence of new nations in the world. We have read in history about the rise and fall of nations. It is natural. If Nigeria breaks up, it will not be the only Federation created by the Great Britain which has broken up. Britain created the Federation of East Africa which broke up into the countries now called Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Britain created the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was dissolved leading to the emergence of Zimbabwe and Malawi. Britain created the West Indies Federation which was not workable and was dissolved leading to the emergence of nine sovereign nations in the Caribbean including Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and others. The USSR was formed in 1917 but was dissolved on 26 December 1991 leading to the emergence of dozens of independent nations. Nigeria can be dissolved in peace in such a way that all the regions and the foreign investors will be satisfied. There is need for proper consultations and diplomatic negotiations. In fact, the Great Britain may be the first to recognize Biafra if the Biafrans follow the due process of law and diplomacy. I want to state clearly and loudly that the British Government does not hate the Biafrans. The fact is that Britain respects the rule of law and will accept and recognize Biafra if the Biafrans satisfy the requirements of international law to become a sovereign nation. The Biafrans must follow the due process of law and diplomacy. The desire of Britain and other World Powers to have one united Nigeria is not wrong in principle provided the terms of the One United Nigeria are negotiated. The terms cannot be negotiated by the politicians regarded by the masses as “criminal politicians” who represent the people at Abuja. It is no longer news that Nigeria was described by the former Prime Minister of the Great Britain as “fantastically corrupt”. Truly, the masses have lost confidence in the Abuja contractors called Nigerian politicians. Mr Arkwright stressed that Nigeria would be better under one umbrella. His opinion is arguable and needs to be qualified- Under One Umbrella in What Terms? It appears he did not know or hear about the Aburi Accord 1967 where the Biafran leaders and Nigerian leaders agreed to be under one umbrella as One Nigeria in which each of the then four regions would be autonomous and govern itself. It was to be similar to the arrangement in the United Kingdom comprising England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Had the Aburi Accord been respected and implemented by General Yakubu Gowon, there would not have been any war between Biafra and Nigeria. 18 Unfortunately, General Gowon turned around and said he did not understand the Agreement he signed anymore! This led to the war which has continued up this day in another way. Now, we have another opportunity to return to the Aburi Accord repackaged with a different and better label called the Six Geopolitical Zones of Nigeria instead of the former four. This arrangement ensures that those people considered as “minority” ethnic nationalities are not dominated by the Big Three. Now there is a good opportunity for every region to be free and govern itself on its own land within the One Nigeria. It is interesting to note that this is the No 7 Prayer of the Biafrans as contained in their Originating Summons worded as follows: “An Order affirming the Memorandum of Ohanaeze Ndigbo dated 28th June 2012 submitted to the National Assembly for the restructuring of Nigeria into six autonomous self-governing regions, namely: South East, South West, South-South, North East, North West and North Central, as a manifestation of the Will of the People in the exercise of their right to selfdetermination and directing the Defendants to present an Executive Bill to the National Assembly for a law granting autonomy and self-governing status to the six geopolitical regions in Nigeria; OR IN THE ALTERNATIVE, in the role of the Judiciary as the last hope of the common man, an Order directing the Defendants to present an Executive Bill to the National Assembly for a law dissolving Nigeria in peace along the compatible ethnic groups instead of allowing the country to break up in bloodshed”. The Biafrans have actually proffered the best solution by sending the Memorandum of Ohanaeze Ndigbo to the National Assembly in 2012 to promulgate a law restructuring Nigeria into six autonomous self-governing regions in the One Nigeria, thereby making the Great Britain the father of many nations in the One Nigeria. In a nutshell, my Proposal is that the Great Britain should play the role of a father to see that Nigeria is restructured into six autonomous self-governing nations in the One Nigeria. This arrangement is for the interest of Nigeria as a country and for all ethnic nationalities as well as for the interest of members of the International Community who have invested in Nigeria. Ultimately, any of the six regions desiring to exercise its right to self-determination and gain total independence can conduct a referendum just as Scotland is doing at the moment. The Nigerian Authorities do not think that the Biafran question is very serious because they have got assurances from the World Powers that Nigeria would not be allowed to break up. They are not thinking of restructuring the country in line with the Memorandum of Ohanaeze Ndigbo. The leaders in the North and West preaching “Restructuring” understand the term in a different way from what the Biafrans meant in their Memo to the National Assembly. They pretend not to see the reasons behind the agitation by the Biafrans. However, according to Alhaji Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, Nigeria is sitting on a time-bomb. Any type of restructuring that is not in line with the Memo of Ohanaeze Ndigbo submitted to the National Assembly in 2012 will not be acceptable to the Biafrans. The Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of Elders of Indigenous People of Biafra, Dr. Dozie Ikedife, said in the Vanguard Newspaper of 10 April 2017 that Restructuring would not stop agitation for Biafran Independence. Dr Ikedife was reported to have said as follows: W 19 alone insulting language. We the members of the Supreme Council of Elders are tired of staying in bondage in a country called Nigeria. We do not believe in monolithic ’ landlocked are wrong. About 30 northern countries all over the world are landlocked but doing fine. Taiwan is a nation of about seven million people. Some other countries are smaller than either Ebonyi State, Enugu or Imo States. We are also compatible. So, why are they insu ?” It is clear from Dr Ikedife’s statement that the Supreme Council of Elders of Biafraland and their children regard the present arrangement of living in Nigeria as living in bondage. The arrangement must be renegotiated for peace to reign. Foreign Investments: The investments of foreigners are safe in Biafraland, whether in the oil & gas sector, real estates, science & technology, manufacturing sector, or agriculture, etc. The human rights law guarantees every person’s right to own properties or investments in any part of the world. It is a free world. The Nigerians and Biafrans can own properties and investments in Europe, America, Asia, etc, just as the Europeans, Americans and Asians can own properties and investments in Africa. If Biafra gains independence, it will have Nigeria as a friendly nation. As Biafra and Nigeria are in the same ECOWAS sub-region, both of them are covered under the ECOWAS Treaty which guarantees free movement and free trade in West Africa. Therefore, the Nigerians will not require visas to enter Biafra and the Biafrans will not require visas to enter Nigeria. If this proposal is accepted, the bilateral trade relationship between the Great Britain and Nigeria will not be disturbed at all. In fact, all the countries that have trade agreements with Nigeria shall continue with their businesses. The Biafrans believe in fair competition in a free market economy. They are enterprising in their businesses and do not depend on oil politics and oil money. It is rather the failure to address their grievances that may disrupt the flow of businesses. We have witnessed the disruption of oil production following the attacks by the Niger Delta militants. If the Biafra-Nigeria conundrum is left unresolved, the effect may be catastrophic. 7. The Factual and Evidential Basis of My Proposal: The highlight of my proposal is that the Great Britain should play the role of a father to ensure that Nigeria is restructured into six autonomous self-governing regions in a confederacy giving every region the right to attain full independence in future whenever it is ready by conducting referendum just as Scotland is doing now. The basis of my proposal is to avoid the breakdown of law and order and ensure the sociopolitical and economic stability of all nations that are connected with Nigeria. The factual and evidential basis of my proposal is as follows: (a) If the Biafrans are allowed to go now and form a sovereign government without supervision by a World Power, there is likely to be much bloodshed and anarchy worse that what is happening in South Sudan today. This is the fear of many people who are opposed to the Biafran Independence Project. There is factual evidence of in-fighting and threats of assassination among the groups 20 agitating for the Biafran Independence. As a lawyer, I cannot make a statement without justifying it. Let me reproduce the statements of one of the Biafran activists posted on Facebook to rest my case on this point: “Every calamity that has ever befallen the Biafran people in the expired Lugard contraption Flora Shaw named Nigger-area (Nigeria) were perpetrated by those Igbos born outside Biafraland of dubious and questionable parentage. The list is endless right from Dr. Azikiwe to the fool called Ukpabi Asika who I am certain is in hell. Henceforth and in keeping with our oath, all saboteurs will be caught and executed. There will be no mercy, no pardon, no forgiveness. All traitors must die and so too their families. This nonsensical disease of Igbo saboteurs springing up all over the place in the name of having a different opinion on Biafra liberation will no longer be tolerated especially those who claim they are Biafrans but are supporting APC or APC candidates”. (Speaker’s name withheld). “The best antidote to lies and deceit is TRUTH. The best antidote to treachery and sabotage is death. To all the amateur lawyers experimenting with Biafra independence in Nigeria law court and their shameless deceit your end is near. THIS IS THE PM EDITION OF RADIO BIAFRA LIVE BROADCAST OF 14 JUNE 2014 FROM ENUGU THE CAPITAL CITY OF BIAFRALAND. In this episode: Three questions Bilie APC/BHRI will never answer and which they must be pressured to provide answers are: (1) Why is Bilie APC/BHRI continuing to deceive Biafrans with a court case when there is no recorded case in history where a country got independence through legal method? Ask them to name one country that got freedoms through the courts….Say no to further deceit in the name of Biafra, join the revolution today. Without violence there will be no Biafra. No country won her freedom through legal method. This legal method rubbish is a fraud. No compromise, no retreat, no surrender. Biafra or death!” (Speaker’s name withheld) From the above statements, it is clear that there would be anarchy and bloodshed in Biafraland worse than South Sudan if the Biafra Project is not supervised by a World Power. The person who made the statements above said they had entered into oath to kill those they had tagged saboteurs for having a different opinion on Biafra liberation. (b) The collective responsibility of the sovereign in the use of the powers of sovereignty makes it necessary and reasonable to achieve full independence in phases. Nigeria gained independence in 1960 but became a Republic in 1963. It took three years to assume the full powers of sovereignty. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 but became a Republic in 1976 after 14 years! Even for the United Kingdom that has voted in a Referendum to leave the European Union, a moratorium period of two years is given before the total pull-out. Seeing what is happening in Nigeria today, one begins to wonder whether Nigeria assumed the full powers of sovereignty too early. Nigeria has been described as “fantastically corrupt” with the worst political leaders in 21 modern history capable of doing anything no matter how heinous to stay in power. South Sudan gained independence in 2011 and assumed full powers of sovereignty immediately. Their story today is lamentable. Unfortunately, South Sudan is now a sovereign nation with sovereign immunity limiting every other nation from interring with the internal affairs of South Sudan! (c) An orderly supervision of the restructuring of Nigeria into six autonomous selfgoverning nations in one will ensure continuity of businesses and relationships among the peoples and nations that are connected with Nigeria. The Great Britain is sufficiently experienced in international politics and diplomacy to supervise this Project to resolve the Biafra-Nigeria conundrum. The above factual and evidential basis of legal argument therefore forms the foundation of my submission and proposal. 8. Conclusion: This Proposal may be called Mekadolf Formula 6. The Biafrans are not seeking to destroy Nigeria but to be free from Nigeria. The author believes that Nigeria will survive and still become a great country when the Biafrans ultimately gain full independence. The Israelites came out from Egypt without destroying Egypt. The two are friendly nations today. Bangladesh and Pakistan came out from India without destroying India. Eritrea came out from Ethiopia without destroying Ethiopia. The Biafrans want freedom from Nigeria without any intention of causing harm to Nigeria or to anyone. The Biafran Movement for Independence is a living organism that cannot be killed or suppressed. The Biafrans have adopted the hydra headed octopus strategy to pursue their cause. They have engaged the Nigerian Government in Court as well as in Politics and Diplomacy by the emergence of the Movement of Biafrans in Nigeria (MOBIN) in an alliance with the political party called United Progressive Party (UPP). At the moment, the Biafrans have activated the use of their Customary Law to govern themselves within Nigeria as a people under their Supreme Council of Elders. They are determined to pursue their case for self-determination by due process of law until they gain independence. The story of Biafra has been passed down from generation to generation and will never be forgotten. We have heard that the Nigerian President said he would rather let the whole nation be drowned in the ocean than let the Biafrans go. Well, the Biafran struggle may become generational struggle until the generation that will leave Nigeria as happened with the Israelites who were in Egypt for 430 years but in the end they were freed. It is better for the Nigerian Authorities and the World Powers to engage with the Supreme Council of Elders of Biafraland in discussions and negotiations to resolve this matter now than pretending it does not exist. Time will not solve the problem. Only truth can solve the problem and heal the injustice. Let the dialogue and negotiations begin now! Thank you for listening. – Emeka Emekesiri, Esq. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com 22 Profile Emeka Chigozie Emekesiri, Esq. (formerly called Emeka Adolf Chigozie), is a Barrister & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, Solicitor of England & Wales, Registered Estate Surveyor & Valuer, Professional Management Consultant, Missionary Pastor & Bishop of Christ The Rock Community. He was trained at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus; Imo State University Owerri; Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt; and the College of Law, London, United Kingdom. He is a member of the Law Society of England & Wales; Member of the Nigerian Bar Association; Member of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors & Valuers; Member of the Nigerian Institute of Management; Member of the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy. He is versatile and multi-talented: the first Estate Surveyor & Valuer in Africa to invent new concepts and mathematical formulae in Valuation Science called Mekadolf Formulae; the first Valuation Surveyor in the world to invent the Dutiable Value (DV) Formula for computation of stamp duties, estate duties and capital gains tax; the first Valuation Surveyor in the world to invent the Life Productivity Value (LPV) Formula to assess the value of the life of a human being killed or injured by accident for compensation purposes. His Formulae have been approved by the Estate Surveyors & Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON) and made compulsory in all the Nigerian Universities and Polytechnics for the study of Estate Surveying & Valuation. In his work on the “The Road Map to Peace and Development in the Niger Delta” presented to the Nigerian Government in 2006, he created the formula that formed the basis of the Petroleum Industry Bill currently before the National Assembly. He is the Principal of the Law Firm called Jaycee Gold Solicitors in London which can be found at www.jayceegold.com and Mekadolf Chambers in Nigeria at www.mekadolf.com Current Works on Biafra Barr Emeka Emekesiri is the Solicitor for Indigenous People of Biafra who instituted the ongoing case in Suit No FHC/OW/CS/192/2013 between Biafra and Nigeria in the Federal High Court Owerri. He is the vision bearer of the Legal Methodology of self-determination using the four platforms namely: Bilie Human Rights Initiative, Customary Government of Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB Customary Government Agency for International Relations, and Movement of Biafrans in Nigeria (MOBIN). Their Organization has been granted ECOSOC status in the United Nations. You can contact their Biafran Organizations by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Works & Inventions His works and inventions include: 1. Mekadolf Formulae for the Control and Regulation of Real Estate Practice: The Valuation Approach. Published 1999 & 2015: ISBN 978 – 027 – 688 – 2 2. Deliverance of African Christians, Published 2001: ISBN 978-027-687-4 3. The Road Map to Peace and Development in the Niger Delta: (Research Work Published in 2006 and Submitted to the Federal Government of Nigeria which formed the Basis of the Petroleum Industry Bill to resolve the Niger Delta Crisis in Nigeria) 4. Biafra or Nigerian Presidency- What the Ibos Want: Published 2012: ISBN: 978-0-9573250-0-5, available on the Amazon Bookshop.